<html xmlns:v="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml" xmlns:o="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" xmlns:w="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:word" xmlns:m="http://schemas.microsoft.com/office/2004/12/omml" xmlns:mv="http://macVmlSchemaUri" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40"> <head> <meta name=Title content="Corona discharge ignition"> <meta name=Keywords content=""> <meta http-equiv=Content-Type content="text/html; charset=unicode"> <meta name=ProgId content=Word.Document> <meta name=Generator content="Microsoft Word 14"> <meta name=Originator content="Microsoft Word 14"> <link rel=File-List href="index_files/filelist.xml"> <link rel=Edit-Time-Data href="index_files/editdata.mso"> <!--[if !mso]> <style> v\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} o\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} w\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);} </style> <![endif]--> <title>Corona discharge ignition</title> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:DocumentProperties> <o:Author>Paul Ronney</o:Author> <o:Template>Normal</o:Template> <o:LastAuthor>Paul Ronney</o:LastAuthor> <o:Revision>3</o:Revision> <o:TotalTime>2</o:TotalTime> <o:Created>2005-10-27T23:24:00Z</o:Created> <o:LastSaved>2015-06-08T22:26:00Z</o:LastSaved> <o:Pages>3</o:Pages> <o:Words>1719</o:Words> <o:Characters>9801</o:Characters> <o:Company>Future Soccer Stars of America</o:Company> <o:Lines>81</o:Lines> <o:Paragraphs>22</o:Paragraphs> <o:CharactersWithSpaces>11498</o:CharactersWithSpaces> <o:Version>14.0</o:Version> </o:DocumentProperties> <o:OfficeDocumentSettings> <o:AllowPNG/> </o:OfficeDocumentSettings> </xml><![endif]--> <link rel=themeData href="index_files/themedata.xml"> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:Zoom>125</w:Zoom> <w:SpellingState>Clean</w:SpellingState> <w:GrammarState>Clean</w:GrammarState> <w:TrackMoves/> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:DoNotPromoteQF/> <w:LidThemeOther>EN-US</w:LidThemeOther> <w:LidThemeAsian>X-NONE</w:LidThemeAsian> <w:LidThemeComplexScript>X-NONE</w:LidThemeComplexScript> <w:Compatibility> <w:SplitPgBreakAndParaMark/> </w:Compatibility> <m:mathPr> <m:mathFont m:val="Cambria Math"/> <m:brkBin m:val="before"/> <m:brkBinSub m:val="&#45;-"/> <m:smallFrac m:val="off"/> <m:dispDef/> <m:lMargin m:val="0"/> <m:rMargin m:val="0"/> <m:defJc m:val="centerGroup"/> <m:wrapIndent m:val="1440"/> <m:intLim m:val="subSup"/> <m:naryLim m:val="undOvr"/> </m:mathPr></w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" DefUnhideWhenUsed="true" DefSemiHidden="true" DefQFormat="false" DefPriority="99" LatentStyleCount="276"> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="0" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Normal"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="heading 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" QFormat="true" Name="heading 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" QFormat="true" Name="heading 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" QFormat="true" Name="heading 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" QFormat="true" Name="heading 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" QFormat="true" Name="heading 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" QFormat="true" Name="heading 7"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" QFormat="true" Name="heading 8"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" QFormat="true" Name="heading 9"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" Name="toc 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" Name="toc 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" Name="toc 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" Name="toc 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" Name="toc 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" Name="toc 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" Name="toc 7"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" Name="toc 8"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" Name="toc 9"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="35" QFormat="true" Name="caption"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="10" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Title"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="1" Name="Default Paragraph Font"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="11" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Subtitle"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="22" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Strong"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="20" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Emphasis"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="59" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Table Grid"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Placeholder Text"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="1" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="No Spacing"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Revision"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="34" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="List Paragraph"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="29" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Quote"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="30" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Quote"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="19" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Subtle Emphasis"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="21" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="31" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Subtle Reference"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="32" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Reference"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="33" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Book Title"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="37" Name="Bibliography"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" QFormat="true" Name="TOC Heading"/> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--> <style> <!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:Times; panose-1:2 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:3 0 0 0 1 0;} @font-face {font-family:"-3 fg"; mso-font-charset:78; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-536870145 1791491579 18 0 131231 0;} @font-face {font-family:"-3 fg"; mso-font-charset:78; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-536870145 1791491579 18 0 131231 0;} @font-face {font-family:"\@-3 fg"; mso-font-charset:78; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-536870145 1791491579 18 0 131231 0;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-margin-top-alt:auto; margin-right:0in; mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Times; mso-fareast-font-family:"-3 fg"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} h1 {mso-style-priority:9; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-link:"Heading 1 Char"; mso-style-next:Normal; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; mso-outline-level:1; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Times; mso-fareast-font-family:"-3 fg"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-font-kerning:0pt; font-weight:normal; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} a:link, span.MsoHyperlink {mso-style-priority:99; color:blue; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed {mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; color:blue; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} p {mso-style-priority:99; mso-margin-top-alt:auto; margin-right:0in; mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Times; mso-fareast-font-family:"-3 fg"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} span.Heading1Char {mso-style-name:"Heading 1 Char"; mso-style-priority:9; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Heading 1"; mso-ansi-font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt; font-family:Arial; mso-ascii-font-family:Arial; mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"-3 0000"; mso-fareast-theme-font:major-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Arial; mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:major-bidi;} span.SpellE {mso-style-name:""; mso-spl-e:yes;} span.GramE {mso-style-name:""; mso-gram-e:yes;} .MsoChpDefault {mso-style-type:export-only; mso-default-props:yes; font-size:10.0pt; mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;} @page WordSection1 {size:8.5in 11.0in; margin:1.0in 1.25in 1.0in 1.25in; mso-header-margin:.5in; mso-footer-margin:.5in; mso-paper-source:0;} div.WordSection1 {page:WordSection1;} --> </style> <!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} </style> <![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="1029"> <v:textbox inset="5.85pt,.7pt,5.85pt,.7pt"/> <o:colormenu v:ext="edit" fillcolor="none"/> </o:shapedefaults></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor=white lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=blue style='tab-interval:.5in' bgproperties=fixed> <div class=WordSection1> <p align=center style='text-align:center'><b><span style='font-size:16.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Energy-efficient transient plasma ignition and combustion</span></b><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'> <br> <br> </span><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>(with Prof. Martin Gundersen, USC Dept. of Electrical Engineering - <span class=SpellE>Electrophysics</span>) <br> Supported by the <a href="http://www.afosr.af.mil/">U. S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research</a> and <a href="http://www.eren.doe.gov/der/gas_fired/projects.html">U.S. Department of Energy</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>Introduction</span></strong><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>The electric arc has been the ignition source of choice for most types of propulsion and automotive combustion engines for over 100 years. It has many advantages including simplicity, low cost, size and weight of the electronics, and it produces sufficiently high temperatures to dissociate and partially ionize most fuel and oxidant molecules. Nevertheless, there are also numerous disadvantages of arc discharges, including the limited size of the discharge, the necessity for supporting electrodes that may interfere with the flow or combustion process, and the low &quot;wall-plug&quot; efficiency (i.e. ratio of energy deposited in the gas to the electrical energy consumed in producing the discharge.) For these reasons, many investigations of ignition of deflagrations and detonations by alternate energy sources such as lasers have been conducted in recent years. Still, laser ignition sources present many practical difficulties, especially the need for reliable optical access, extremely low wall-plug efficiency, and extremely high optical intensities needed to induced breakdown in the gas which in turn makes it difficult to control the location and intensity of the discharge. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>The subject of this investigation is the use of corona discharges (the portion of an electric discharge before the onset of the low-voltage, high current arc discharge) for the initiation of combustion in propulsion systems and internal combustion engines. The corona discharge is basically <span class=GramE>a plasma</span> that is in a transient, <i>formative</i> phase. Corona discharges have the potential to overcome many of these limitations of conventional electric discharges and laser discharge for reasons that include: (1) there is better coupling into gas because the cross-section for dissociation and ionization more nearly matches the electron energy distribution function; (2) there are lower losses through lower radiation, lower anode and cathode losses, and lower <span class=SpellE>gasdynamic</span> disturbance formation; (3) there are many streamers, each of which has a similar energy content, as opposed to a single, unnecessarily large and intense arc, which in turn can initiate combustion in a larger volume and (4) the size and shape of the ignition volume can be tailored using the geometry of the anode and cathode. With recent advances in pulsed power electronics, such discharges can be produced with very high wall-plug efficiencies in a system of reasonable cost, size and weight. <a href="http://www.usc.edu/dept/ee/People/Faculty/gundersen.html">Prof. Martin Gundersen</a> of the USC Department of Electrical Engineering - <span class=SpellE>Electrophysics</span> has developed energy-efficient corona discharge systems that will be used for these investigations. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Recent highlights include the first testing of corona ignition in an internal combustion engine.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span>Results were very promising; indicated efficiencies were consistently 15  20% higher than spark ignition under identical operating conditions and burn rates were typically twice as fast with corona as spark ignition.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span>See <span class=SpellE><span class=GramE>powerpoint</span></span> presentation below for more details.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'><a href="http://carambola.usc.edu/research/coronaignition/coronaignition.html">View <span class=GramE>powerpoint</span> presentation about corona ignition in general</a> (more detailed than the description below)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'><a href="coronaengine.html">View <span class=GramE>powerpoint</span> presentation about corona discharge ignition of internal combustion engines</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><b><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Recent publications:<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in;text-align:justify;text-indent: -.25in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Wang, F., Liu, J. B., <span class=SpellE>Sinibaldi</span>, J., <span class=SpellE>Brophy</span>, C., <span class=SpellE>Kuthi</span>, A., Jiang, C., Ronney, P. D., Gundersen, M. A., &quot;Transient Plasma Ignition of Quiescent and Flowing Fuel Mixtures, &quot; <i>IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science</i>, Vol. 33, pp. 844  849 (2005).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span><a href="http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/27/30693/01420629.pdf?tp=&amp;arnumber=1420629&amp;isnumber=30693">Download .pdf version from IEEE website</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in;text-align:justify;text-indent: -.25in'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Liu, J. B., Wang, F., Li, G., <span class=SpellE>Kuthi</span>, A., <span class=SpellE>Gutmark</span>, E. J., Ronney, P. D., Gundersen, M. A., &quot;Transient plasma ignition,&quot; <i>IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science</i>, Vol. 33, pp. 326-327 (2005).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span></span><span style='font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><a href="http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/27/30692/01420459.pdf?tp=&amp;arnumber=1420459&amp;isnumber=30692"><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Download .pdf version from IEEE website</span></a></span><b><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <h1 style='margin-top:0in;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:6.0pt;margin-left: .25in;text-indent:-.25in;page-break-after:auto'><span style='font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'><a href="AIAA-2004-corona-fueltype.pdf">Liu, J. B., Wang, F., Lee, L., Ronney, P. D., Gundersen, M. A.,  Effect of fuel type on flame ignition by transient plasma discharges, AIAA Paper No. 2004-0837, 42<sup>nd</sup> AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, NV, January 5-8, 2004.</a><o:p></o:p></span></h1> <h1 style='margin-top:0in;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:6.0pt;margin-left: .25in;text-indent:-.25in;page-break-after:auto'><span style='font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'><a href="AIAA-2004-corona-geometry.pdf">Liu, J. B., Wang, F., Lee, L., Ronney, P. D., Gundersen, M. A.,  Effect of Discharge Energy and Cavity Geometry on Flame Ignition by Transient Plasma, AIAA Paper No. 2004-1011, 42<sup>nd</sup> AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, NV, January 5-8, 2004</a>.<o:p></o:p></span></h1> <p><strong><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>Experimental results</span></strong><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Despite the potential advantages, there have been no systematic studies of the initiation of deflagrations or detonations using corona discharges. Preliminary experiments on the ignition of quiescent CH<sub>4</sub>-air mixtures at 1 <span class=SpellE>atm</span> total pressure have recently been obtained in our laboratory. <i>To our knowledge these are the first data on flame ignition by corona discharge sources.</i> Figure 1 shows a block diagram of the experimental apparatus for quiescent tests. It consists of the corona discharge generator system and a test cylinder for introducing fuel, and studying initiation of combustion. The 5.1 cm diameter test cylinder has gas inlets, outlet and vacuum pump inlet in one end plate, high-accuracy pressure gauge for measuring the partial pressures of the reactants, and a fast-response pressure transducer for use during the combustion experiments. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p align=center style='text-align:center'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype id="_x0000_t75" coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f" stroked="f"> <v:stroke joinstyle="miter"/> <v:formulas> <v:f eqn="if lineDrawn pixelLineWidth 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 1 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum 0 0 @1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @2 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 0 1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @6 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="sum @8 21600 0"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @10 21600 0"/> </v:formulas> <v:path o:extrusionok="f" gradientshapeok="t" o:connecttype="rect"/> <o:lock v:ext="edit" aspectratio="t"/> </v:shapetype><v:shape id="_x0000_i1241" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:6in; height:259pt'> <v:imagedata src="index_files/image001.emz" o:title=""/> </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=434 height=261 src="index_files/image002.png" v:shapes="_x0000_i1241"><![endif]></p> <p align=center style='text-align:center'><em><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>Figure 1. Schematic diagram of corona discharge ignition system for combustion experiments </span></em><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Figure 2 shows sequential images of a flame in a very lean mixture ignited using the corona discharge. It can be see that the corona discharge ignites a cylindrical volume whose diameter is more than half of the combustion chamber diameter in a very short period of time. The ignition region surrounds the central cathode, where the streamers are more closely spaced. The effect of the chamber diameter will assessed to determine whether this initial flame kernel diameter is determined mostly by the discharge or the physical size of the chamber. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'><img border=0 width=138 height=128 id="_x0000_i1238" src="file://localhost/Volumes/Macintosh%20HD%20/Library/WebServer/Documents/Research/CoronaIgnition/index.3.gif"><span style="mso-spacerun:yes"></span><img border=0 width=143 height=128 id="_x0000_i1237" src="file://localhost/Volumes/Macintosh%20HD%20/Library/WebServer/Documents/Research/CoronaIgnition/index.4.gif"><span style="mso-spacerun:yes"></span><img border=0 width=143 height=130 id="_x0000_i1236" src="file://localhost/Volumes/Macintosh%20HD%20/Library/WebServer/Documents/Research/CoronaIgnition/index.5.gif"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'><img border=0 width=146 height=131 id="_x0000_i1240" src="file://localhost/Volumes/Macintosh%20HD%20/Library/WebServer/Documents/Research/CoronaIgnition/index.6.gif"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 style='margin-left:-316.35pt;border-collapse:collapse;border:none;mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'> <td width=747 valign=top style='width:747.35pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'> <p align=center style='text-align:center'><em><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>Figure 2. Sequential photos (33 ms between images) of axial view of corona discharge ignition of a 6.5% CH<sub>4</sub>-air mixture at 1 atm. Diameter of chamber is 5.1 cm. </span></em><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Figure 3 shows the energy deposited in the gas as a function of the corona power supply voltage. For sufficiently low voltages (&lt; 8 kV), no discharge can be initiated. Above this voltage, the energy deposited increases rapidly with increasing voltage. Thus, it is possible to specify a particular amount energy deposition depending on the application. An order of magnitude range of energy deposition is shown in Fig. 3. Figure 4 shows the ignition delay time (time lapse between the discharge and the pressure reaching 10% of the peak pressure in a constant-volume chamber) as a function of the discharge energy. It can be seen that there is an &quot;optimal&quot; energy of about 200 mJ for this case, below which the delay time increases rapidly, and above which the delay is nearly constant. Thus, there is little motivation to increase the energy above this optimal value. This behavior was seen for all mixtures tested in our preliminary experiments. As expected, the optimal energy was found to be higher for leaner mixtures. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"'><img border=0 width=343 height=253 id="_x0000_i1195" src="file://localhost/Volumes/Macintosh%20HD%20/Library/WebServer/Documents/Research/CoronaIgnition/Energy.gif"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p align=center style='text-align:center'><i><span style='font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Figure 3. Energy deposition vs supply voltage for corona discharge sources</span></i><span style='font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"'> <img border=0 width=327 height=261 id="_x0000_i1194" src="file://localhost/Volumes/Macintosh%20HD%20/Library/WebServer/Documents/Research/CoronaIgnition/RiseTimevsEnergy.gif"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p align=center style='text-align:center'><i><span style='font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Figure 4. Combustion rise time as a function of pulse energy for CH<sub>4</sub>-air mixtures at 1 atm showing presence of &quot;optimal&quot; energy (~ 200 mJ in this case).</span></i><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Figure 5 shows the ignition delay time and Figure 6 shows the combustion rise time (time lapse between the pressure reaching 10% and 90% of the peak pressure), both as a function of equivalence ratio. For all corona ignition cases shown, the &quot;optimal&quot; energy was used. Also shown are corresponding results for an arc discharge (~ 70 mJ) at different locations within the chamber. These figures show the most significant finding of the preliminary experiments - <i>the corona discharge leads to much more rapid combustion (by about a factor of 3) than an arc discharge for all mixtures tested, even for the most advantageous arc discharge location.</i> <o:p></o:p></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=1 cellpadding=0 width="50%" style='width:50.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;border:outset 1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes'> <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'><img border=0 width=376 height=276 id="_x0000_i1032" src="file://localhost/Volumes/Macintosh%20HD%20/Library/WebServer/Documents/Research/CoronaIgnition/DelayTime.gif"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'><img border=0 width=379 height=285 id="_x0000_i1033" src="file://localhost/Volumes/Macintosh%20HD%20/Library/WebServer/Documents/Research/CoronaIgnition/RiseTime.gif"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'> <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><i><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Figure 5. Ignition delay time as a function of equivalence ratio for CH<sub>4</sub>-air mixtures at 1 atm for arc and corona ignition sources having &quot;optimal&quot; energy (see text).</span></i><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'> <o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><i><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Figure 6. Combustion rise time as a function of equivalence ratio for CH<sub>4</sub>-air mixtures at 1 atm for arc and corona ignition sources having &quot;optimal&quot; energy (see text).</span></i><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'> <o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>There are many factors that may contribute to the advantageous results of the corona discharge. Clearly the geometrical advantage of the corona is present (many optimal streamers vs. one unnecessarily large and intense arc.) Still, it is expected that the performance of the corona ignition system would be superior to an arc discharge system having several independent discharges because the corona streamers are distributed throughout the annular region between the coaxial electrodes whereas the arcs would be restricted to the regions between their respective electrode pairs. Moreover, these multiple electrode pairs would certainly yield greater heat and radical losses and would be a less energetically efficient means of ignition. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>This more rapid combustion with corona discharges can be exploited in a number of ways. In the case of pulse detonation engines, it could lead to smaller, lighter engines with higher specific impulse. For premixed lean-burn gas turbines, it could provide the needed acceleration and stabilization of combustion to make such devices practical in a wider range of applications. Moreover, even for mixtures that are not especially lean, the corona discharge decreases the time required for combustion to occur in a given volume, which means that the residence time of reactants in the high-temperature region of the combustor can be decreased, which in turn leads to lower thermal NO<sub>x</sub> formation. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Not proficient in English?<span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span><a href="http://www.autoteilexxl.de/edu/?p=2905">Try the Swedish version.</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </body> </html>