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mso-layout-grid-align:none; punctuation-wrap:simple; text-autospace:none; font-size:16.0pt; font-family:Times; mso-fareast-font-family:"-3 fg"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; color:black; mso-font-kerning:16.0pt; font-weight:bold;} span.SpellE {mso-style-name:""; mso-spl-e:yes;} span.GramE {mso-style-name:""; mso-gram-e:yes;} .MsoChpDefault {mso-style-type:export-only; mso-default-props:yes; font-size:10.0pt; mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;} @page WordSection1 {size:8.5in 11.0in; margin:1.0in 1.25in 1.0in 1.25in; mso-header-margin:.5in; mso-footer-margin:.5in; mso-paper-source:0;} div.WordSection1 {page:WordSection1;} --> </style> <!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} </style> <![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="1034"> <v:textbox inset="5.85pt,.7pt,5.85pt,.7pt"/> <o:colormenu v:ext="edit" fillcolor="none"/> </o:shapedefaults></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor=white lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=blue style='tab-interval:.5in'> <div class=WordSection1> <p align=center style='text-align:center'><span class=SpellE><b><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Microscale</span></b></span><b><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial'> combustion ( microcombustion ), micro power generation and <span class=SpellE>micropropulsion</span></span></b><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial'> <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><b><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Quick Links<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p style='margin-left:.5in'><b><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>On-line presentations:<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><a href="http://ronney.usc.edu/research/microfire/MicroPower4Web.htm">Microcombustion and power generation</a><br> <a href="http://ronney.usc.edu/Research/MicroFIRE/MicroSOFCs4Web.htm">Micro solid oxide fuel cells</a><br> <a href="http://ronney.usc.edu/research/microFIRE/ThermalTranspiration4Web.htm">Micropropulsion and gas pumping</a> <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style='margin-left:.5in'><b><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Papers:<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.75in;text-align:justify;text-indent: -.25in;line-height:12.0pt;mso-line-height-rule:exactly'><span style='font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Ronney, P. D.,  <a href="HeatRecirculatingCombustorsBookChapter.pdf">Heat-Recirculating Combustors</a>, Chapter 10 in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><a href="http://www.momentumpress.net/books/microscale-combustion-and-power-generation">Microscale Combustion and Power Generation</a></i> (Y. <span class=SpellE>Ju</span>, C. <span class=SpellE>Cadou</span> and K. Maruta, Eds.), Momentum Press LLC, New York, 2015, pp. 287-320.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.75in;text-align:justify;text-indent: -.25in'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial'>Chen, C<span class=GramE>.-</span>H., Ronney, P. D.,  Scale and geometry effects on heat-recirculating combustors, <i>Combustion Theory and <span class=SpellE>Modelling</span></i>, Vol. 17, pp. 888 - 905 (2013).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span><a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13647830.2013.812807">(DOI: 10.1080/13647830.2013.812807)</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.75in;text-align:justify;text-indent: -.25in'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Zeng</span></span><span style='font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>, P., Wang, K., Ahn, J., Ronney, P. D.,  A self-sustaining thermal transpiration gas pump and SOFC power generation system, <i>Proceedings of the Combustion Institute</i>, Vol. 34, pp. 3327 - 3334 (2013).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span><a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2012.06.168">(DOI: 10.1016/j.proci.2012.06.168)</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Chen, C<span class=GramE>.-</span>H., Ronney, P. D.,  Three-dimensional Effects in Counterflow Heat-Recirculating Combustors, Vol. 33, pp. 3285-3291 (2011)<span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span><a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2010.06.081">(DOI: 10.1016/j.proci.2010.06.081)</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Ahn, J., Shao, Z., Ronney, P. D., Haile, S.,  A Thermally Self-Sustaining Miniature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, <i>Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology</i>, Nov.<i> </i>2009.<i> </i><a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.3081425">(DOI: 10.1115/1.3081425)</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Cho, J<span class=GramE>.-</span>H., Lee, J., Lin, J., Sanford, L. N., Richards, C. D., Richards, R. F., Ahn, J., Ronney, P. D.,  Demonstration of an external combustion micro-heat engine, <i>Proceedings of the Combustion Institute,</i> Vol. 32, pp. 3099-3105 (2009).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span><a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2008.07.017">(DOI: 10.1016/j.proci.2008.07.017)</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:#262626'>Hyland, P., Lee, J. M., Lin, C. S., Ahn, J., Ronney, P. D.,  Effect of ammonia treatment on <span class=SpellE>Pt</span> catalyst used for low temperature reaction, <a href="http://proceedings.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org.libproxy.usc.edu/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1599214">Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition 2007, Vol. 6: Energy Systems: Analysis, Thermodynamics and Sustainability, pp. 135  140 (2008).</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:#262626'>Sanford, L. L., Huang, S. Y., Lin, C. S<span class=GramE>..,</span> Lee, J., Ahn, J., Ronney, P. D.,  Plastic <span class=SpellE>Mesoscale</span> Combustors/Heat Exchangers, <a href="http://proceedings.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org.libproxy.usc.edu/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1599217">Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition 2007, Vol. 6: Energy Systems: Analysis, Thermodynamics and Sustainability, pp. 141  145 (2008).</a></span><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style='margin-left:.5in'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Kuo</span></span><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>, C<span class=GramE>.-</span>H., Ronney, P. D.,  Numerical Modeling of Heat Recirculating Combustors, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 31, pp. 3277-3284 (2007).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span><a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2006.08.082">(DOI: 10.1016/j.proci.2006.08.082)</a><b><o:p></o:p></b></span></p> <p class=MsoBodyText2 style='margin-left:.5in;line-height:normal'><span class=GramE><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial'>Haile, S., Ronney, P. D., Shao, Z.,<span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span> Power generator and method for forming the same, <a href="http://www.google.com/patents/US7247402">U. S. Patent No. 7,247,402</a>, July 24, 2007.</span></span><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBodyText2 style='margin-left:.5in;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Shao, Z, Haile, S., Ahn, J., Ronney, P. D., Zhan, Z., Barnett, S. A.,  A thermally self-sustained micro Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell with high power density, Nature, Vol. 435, pp. 795-798 (9 June 2005).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span><a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature03673">(DOI: 10.1038/nature03673)</a><span style='mso-font-kerning:16.0pt'><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:.5in;margin-bottom:5.0pt;margin-left: .5in'><u style='text-underline:#0024F8'><span style='font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:#0024F8'><a href="http://www.google.com/patents/US6951456">Cohen, A., Ronney, P. D., Frodis, U., Sitzki, L, Meiburg, E., Wussow, S.,  Microcombustor and combustion-based thermoelectric microgenerator, U. S. Patent No. 6,951,456, Oct. 4, 2005 (continuation of patent No. 6,613,972).</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></p> <p style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:.5in;margin-bottom:5.0pt;margin-left: .5in'><span class=GramE><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial'>Ronney, P. D.,  Analysis of non-adiabatic heat-recirculating combustors, <i>Combustion and Flame</i>, <span class=SpellE>Vol</span> 135, pp. 421-439 (2003).</span></span><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span><a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2003.07.003">(DOI: 10.1016/j.combustflame.2003.07.003)</a> <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:.5in;margin-bottom:5.0pt;margin-left: .5in'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Ahn, J., Eastwood, C., <span class=SpellE>Sitzki</span>, L., Ronney, P. D.,  Gas-phase and catalytic combustion in heat-recirculating burners, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 30<span class=GramE>, &nbsp;pp</span>. 2463-2472 (2005).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2004.08.265">(DOI: 10.1016/j.proci.2004.08.265)</a></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:.5in;margin-bottom:5.0pt;margin-left: .5in'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial'>Posthill</span></span><span style='font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>, J., Reddy, A., <span class=SpellE>Siivola</span>, E., Krueger, G., <span class=SpellE>Mantini</span>, M., Thomas, P., <span class=SpellE>Venkatasubramanian</span>, R., Ochoa, F., Ronney, P. D.,  Portable power sources using combustion of butane and <span class=SpellE>thermoelectrics</span>, 24th International Conference on <span class=SpellE>Thermoelectrics</span> (ICT), pp. 520  523 (2005). <span style='color:blue'><a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICT.2005.1520000">(DOI: 10.1109/ICT.2005.1520000)</a></span> <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:.5in;margin-bottom:5.0pt;margin-left: .5in'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial; color:blue'><a href="http://www.google.com/patents/US6613972"><span class=GramE>Cohen, A., Ronney, P. D., Frodis, U., Sitzki, L, Meiburg, E., Wussow, S.,  Microcombustor and combustion-based thermoelectric microgenerator, U.S. Patent No. 6,613,972, Sept. 2, 2003.</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:.5in;margin-bottom:5.0pt;margin-left: .5in'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Maruta, K., Takeda, K., Ahn, J., Borer, K., <span class=SpellE>Sitzki</span>, L, Ronney, P. D., <span class=SpellE>Deutchman</span>, O.,  Extinction Limits of Catalytic Combustion in <span class=SpellE>Microchannels</span>, <i>Proceedings of the Combustion Institute</i>, Vol. 29, pp. 957-963 (2002).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span><a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1540-7489(02)80121-3">(DOI: 10.1016/S1540-<span class=GramE>7489(</span>02)80121-3)</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><span class=GramE><span class=MsoHyperlink><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Weinberg, F. J., Rowe, D. M., Min, G., Ronney, P. D.,  On thermoelectric power conversion from heat re-circulating combustion systems, <i>Proceedings of the Combustion Institute</i>, Vol. 29, pp. 941-947 (2002).</span></span></span><span class=MsoHyperlink><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'> </span></span><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1540-7489(02)80119-5">(DOI: 10.1016/S1540-<span class=GramE>7489(</span>02)80119-5)</a></span><span style='font-size:9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style='margin-right:.5in'><b><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Pictures<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=1 cellpadding=0 width=450 style='width:449.6pt; mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;margin-left:-1.0pt;border:outset 1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-row-margin-left:.15pt'> <td style='mso-cell-special:placeholder;border:none;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in' width=0><p class='MsoNormal'>&nbsp;</td> <td colspan=2 style='padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt'> <p align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype id="_x0000_t75" coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f" stroked="f"> <v:stroke joinstyle="miter"/> <v:formulas> <v:f eqn="if lineDrawn pixelLineWidth 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 1 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum 0 0 @1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @2 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 0 1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @6 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="sum @8 21600 0"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @10 21600 0"/> </v:formulas> <v:path o:extrusionok="f" gradientshapeok="t" o:connecttype="rect"/> <o:lock v:ext="edit" aspectratio="t"/> </v:shapetype><v:shape id="_x0000_i1025" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:237pt; height:164pt'> <v:imagedata src="index_files/image001.jpg" o:title="3Dmesoparts.JPG"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=239 height=166 src="index_files/image002.png" v:shapes="_x0000_i1025"><![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style='padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt'> <p align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1026" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:239pt;height:181pt'> <v:imagedata src="index_files/image003.jpg" o:title="3Dmesosetup.JPG"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=241 height=183 src="index_files/image004.png" v:shapes="_x0000_i1026"><![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td colspan=2 style='padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt'> <p align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1027" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:273pt;height:193pt'> <v:imagedata src="index_files/image005.jpg" o:title="untitled.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=275 height=195 src="index_files/image006.png" v:shapes="_x0000_i1027"><![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1;mso-row-margin-left:.15pt'> <td style='mso-cell-special:placeholder;border:none;border-bottom:outset 1.0pt' width=0><p class='MsoNormal'>&nbsp;</td> <td colspan=2 style='padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt'> <p align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>3D <span class=SpellE>meso</span>-scale burner (4x larger than final design size of <span class=SpellE>microscale</span> burner)<o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style='padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt'> <p align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Experimental apparatus for testing 3D <span class=SpellE>meso</span>-scale burner<o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td colspan=2 style='padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt'> <p align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>3-turn, 3D <span class=SpellE>microscale</span> burner built using EFAB (3 mm tall)<span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span>(partially folded)<o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:2'> <td width=61 colspan=2 style='width:60.55pt;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1028" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:273pt;height:188pt'> <v:imagedata src="index_files/image007.jpg" o:title="miniburner6.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=275 height=190 src="index_files/image008.png" v:shapes="_x0000_i1028"><![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td width=106 colspan=3 style='width:106.45pt;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1029" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:230pt;height:194pt'> <v:imagedata src="index_files/image009.jpg" o:title="miniburner8.jpg" croptop="8307f" cropbottom="5337f" cropleft="9116f" cropright="14175f"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=232 height=196 src="index_files/image010.png" v:shapes="_x0000_i1029"><![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style='padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt'> <p align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1030" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:271pt;height:176pt'> <v:imagedata src="index_files/image011.jpg" o:title="untitled2.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=273 height=178 src="index_files/image012.png" v:shapes="_x0000_i1030"><![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:3;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'> <td width=61 colspan=2 style='width:60.55pt;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt'> <p align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>2D <span class=SpellE>meso</span>-scale burner (3x larger than final design size of <span class=SpellE>microscale</span> burner)<o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td width=106 colspan=3 style='width:106.45pt;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt'> <p align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Experimental apparatus for testing 2D <span class=SpellE>meso</span>-scale burner<o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style='padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt'> <p align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>3-turn, 3D <span class=SpellE>microscale</span> burner built using EFAB (3 mm tall)<span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span>(before folding)<o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <![if !supportMisalignedColumns]> <tr height=0> <td width=3 style='border:none'></td> <td width=278 style='border:none'></td> <td width=2 style='border:none'></td> <td width=246 style='border:none'></td> <td width=2 style='border:none'></td> <td width=279 style='border:none'></td> </tr> <![endif]> </table> </div> <p><b><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Narrative description<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>It is well known that the use of combustion processes for electrical power generation provides enormous advantages over batteries in terms of energy storage per unit mass and in terms of power generation per unit volume, even when the conversion efficiency in the combustion process from thermal energy to electrical energy is taken into account. For example, hydrocarbon fuels provide an energy storage density between 40 and 50 MJ/kg, whereas even modern lithium ion batteries commonly used in laptop computers provide only 0.4 MJ/kg. Thus, even at only 5% conversion efficiency from thermal to electrical energy, hydrocarbon fuels provide about 5 times higher energy storage density than batteries. For this reason automotive and aviation vehicles employ internal combustion engines for prime moving and electrical power generation almost entirely to the exclusion of batteries, even in vehicles whose mass may be less than 1 kg or more than 10<sup>5</sup> kg. In the past few years, many research groups from around the world have begun to develop devices called Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems, or  MEMS, typically borrowing technologies originally developed for microelectronic devices. Recently much attention has been focused on the application of MEMS devices to the production of electrical power, so-called  <em><span style='font-family:Arial'>Power MEMS</span></em> devices, typically in applications where batteries are currently used.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Many groups involved in Power MEMS are investigating scaled-down versions of well-established macro-scale combustion devices (internal combustion engines, gas turbines, pulsed combustors, etc.) There are numerous difficulties with this approach, for example the fact that flames extinguish due to heat losses if the dimension of the combustion chamber is too small, i.e.  microcombustion is more difficult than  <span class=SpellE>macrocombustion</span>. Furthermore, even if flame quenching does not occur, heat and friction losses become increasingly important at smaller scales since the heat release due to combustion and thus power output scales with the volume of the engine whereas the heat and friction losses scale with the surface area. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>For these reasons we have developed two Power MEMS system concepts based on the integration of the following four technologies:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:.5in;margin-bottom:5.0pt;margin-left: .5in'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>" <span style="mso-spacerun:yes"></span>Microcombustion, heat transfer and thermal management using a two-dimensional or three-dimensional <span class=SpellE>toroidal</span>  Swiss Roll counterflow heat exchanger and combustor.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>" <span style="mso-spacerun:yes"></span>Power generation using thermoelectric elements or a single-chamber solid oxide fuel cell<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>" <span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span><span class=GramE>To</span> pump the gaseous reactants through the combustor and (optionally) generate thrust <i>with no moving parts</i>, a catalytic combustion driven thermal transpiration pump.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>These approaches have the following advantages over  traditional approaches to micropower generation:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:.5in;margin-bottom:5.0pt;margin-left: .5in'><i><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial'>" <span style="mso-spacerun:yes"></span>No moving parts</span></i><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>, thus no friction losses<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:.5in;margin-bottom:5.0pt;margin-left: .5in'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>" <span style="mso-spacerun:yes"></span><em><span style='font-family:Arial'>Reduction of heat loss effects, </span></em>thus minimizing flame quenching problems and minimizing efficiency losses.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:.5in;margin-bottom:5.0pt;margin-left: .5in'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>" <span style="mso-spacerun:yes"></span><em><span style='font-family:Arial'>Monolithic construction</span></em>, requiring at most one simple mechanical assembly step (for the electrochemical fabrication technique.)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style='margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:.5in;margin-bottom:5.0pt;margin-left: .5in'><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>" <span style="mso-spacerun:yes"></span><em><span style='font-family:Arial'>Ability to use hydrocarbon fuels</span></em>, unlike some Power MEMS <span class=GramE>concepts which require hazardous, low-energy-per-unit-storage-volume fuels such as hydrogen, or fuels</span> derived from solid rocket propellants.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style='font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>The goal of these projects is to produce practical working devices using a combination of experimental examination of scaled-up model microcombustion, power generation and propulsion devices, numerical modeling of macro- and micro-scale devices, and micro-scale fabrication using the aforementioned techniques.<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </body> </html>